Specific haplotypes of the CALPAIN-5 gene are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CALPAIN-5 (CAPN5) gene in PCOS susceptibility.
METHODS: We analysed four intronic polymorphisms of the CAPN5 gene in 148 well-characterized women with PCOS and 606 unrelated controls. We performed a case-control study and an intracohort analysis of clinical characteristics associated with PCOS.
RESULTS: Analysis of haplotypes distribution between PCOS population compared to controls showed a strong deviation (P = 0.00029). The haplotypes GGCA and GGTG were overrepresented in PCOS patients (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001, respectively). In addition, we identified several CAPN5 haplotypes associated with phenotypic differences observed between PCOS patients, such as the presence of obesity (P = 0.02), cardiovascular complications (P = 0.02), familial antecedents of obesity (P = 0.003) and of hypertension (P = 0.007) and type 2 diabetes mellitus aggregation (P = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a role of CAPN5 gene in PCOS susceptibility in humans. Moreover, novel candidate risk alleles have been identified, within CAPN5 gene, which could be associated with important phenotypic and prognosis differences observed in PCOS patients.